Category Archives: Postgraduate Research

Legal Matters

As some of you will know I have recently received a solicitor’s letter from Florence and Kenneth Wood, authors of Homer’s Secret Iliad and Homer’s Secret Odyssey. They were aggrieved that as a newly graduated student in posting two conference papers on-line on: and the AMPAL 2013 conference proceedings website that I had failed to attach my complete list of research references to the documents, which should have contained references to their works.

As requested, in order to settle this grievance I have removed the papers from both websites, as well as deleting them from my blog where they were also available. I have further signed a Deed of Undertaking promising not to make another such mistake in future, and also agreed to pay the Woods’ £1800 in costs. However, the authors have also requested that I make my Statement of Apology publicly available on my website and blog. As such I am doing so by attaching it to this post.

Mithraism and Plato: Conference Paper

 Antiquity Matters! Warwick Classics Department Postgraduate Colloquium (June 2013)

‘The Mithraic Mysteries: a religious manifestation of Platonic soteriological cosmology’


Since the efforts of Franz Cumont, scholarly opinion concerning the Roman cult known as Mithraism has been divided. The lack of written evidence has led to a wide variety of opinions concerning every aspect of the cult from the purpose of its astronomical imagery, to the gender and status of its members. This disparity has led to an abundance of theories, some of which strive to present Mithraism from the point of view of a single dogma, but all suffer from the necessary flaws of conjecture. There are some scholars such as Beck, Ulansey, and Turcan who believe that on some level or another, a Platonic influence pervades every aspect of this cult, and furthermore, that we can find answers to the Mithraic Mysteries in the texts of Plato. This paper agrees with these scholars inasmuch as it argues that Platonic philosophy, especially Platonic cosmology and astronomy, does indeed pervade the cult. A brief overview of the transmission of Platonic doctrine will at least suggest the likelihood of Plato’s influence. However, this paper also aims to show how far this influence has indeed spread, and suggests that Platonic theory might even explain once for all, why Mithraism was androcentric, and how the initiates sought salvation in the sky.



In the ancient world, natural phenomena were often thought to be in some way divine. This was as true of the celestial landscape as the terrestrial. Plato was one of the first Greek philosophers we know of to have associated the planets themselves with the Greek pantheon. He also outlined a great deal of astronomical theory in the Timaeus, the Republic, the Epinomis and elsewhere. For Plato, this divinely created and inhabited astronomical mechanism was intrinsically associated with the transmigration of souls. Spiritually then, every man was capable of travelling to the realm of the gods, and ultimately to the realm of the Demiurge himself. But did this belief start and end with Plato? This paper examines the negative. After outlining Plato’s theories of astronomy and transmigration, this paper explains how one of the greatest cults of the Roman Imperial period – Mithraism – incorporated these Platonic theories into their soteriological practice. From the physical structure of their temples to the planetary grades of initiation, every aspect of the Mithraic Mysteries suggests a practicable belief in the Platonic cosmos.

While Hesiod was one of the first poets to compose a mythical cosmogony in the 8th century BCE, the tradition carried through to Plato four hundred years later. Plato presented a theory that the planets were divine beings created by the Demiurge in order to generate and measure time. He gave them the names from the Greek pantheon, and explained how they occupied seven consecutive spheres in the sky, and also described the eighth sphere of the fixed stars or ‘world-order’. Alongside this belief in divine planets, Plato also formed an astronomical theory of the heavens. The key features of which I will now outline:

Plato’s works, the Timaeus and the Republic, paint a picture of an astronomically mechanic universe which allowed for the transmigration of souls through the celestial spheres. Key features of this universe include;

Eight celestial spheres, concentrically nestled inside each other. Seven are for the known planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Sun and Moon) as well as the fixed eighth sphere which houses the fixed stars and the souls. This entire collection spins around a fixed central axis which Plato called the Spindle. Plato also described the celestial equator and the ecliptic circle, two bands in the sky, which intersect to form the letter chi ‘X’. Within this mechanical structure permeates a divine spirit known as the ‘World-soul’, a creation of the Demiurge, which both surrounds the universe whilst also being centred within it. Furthermore the Timaeus records how the Demiurge assigned each human soul to a star and set them on earth with individual destinies. Where a life was lived virtuously, the soul could return to its personal star in the eight sphere when the body died. This account of stellar souls also describes a form of spiritual hierarchy whereby women were considered less spiritually evolved than men.

The ‘Myth of Er’ also presents further details regarding the process of metempsychosis and spiritual descent. While Er observes the process of reincarnation in the afterlife he describes how pure souls, after picking their next lot in life, descend through the planetary spheres to their physical incarnation. The implication being that as they fell to their rebirth the position of the planetary spheres was imprinted on their souls in the form of a horoscope. From this briefest survey of Platonic cosmology these few basic precepts of Platonic transmigration can be presented:

1)            The Demiurge is the sole creator of the universe (Timaeus 28c-29a)

2)            The cosmos is both surrounded by, and permeated with, the World-Soul (Timaeus 34b)

3)            The physical structure of the cosmos consists of:

a.            eight concentric spheres around the fixed, central earth (Republic X.616d)

b.            a central axis or spindle (Republic X.617b)

c.             the intersecting celestial equator and ecliptic (Timaeus 36b-d)

4)            The planets are divine (Epinomis 987b –d; Timaeus 38c-d)

5)            Each soul belongs to a star on the stellar sphere (Timaeus 41d)

6)            Souls travel through the eight celestial spheres to a physical body on earth when they are born or incarnated (Republic X.616b-617b)

7)            Virtuous souls return to their star when the body dies (Timaeus 42b)

8)            Women are less spiritually evolved than men and so their souls cannot ascend to the celestial sphere until they have lived virtuously as men (Timaeus 90e-91a)

However, we cannot assume that Plato’s astronomical theories were anything more than the conclusions of a single writer. The paper now goes on to explore the possibility that Platonic astro-theology (that is, in the sense of an astronomical or celestial theology) later manifested itself in the Roman cult known as Mithraism which was founded five-hundred years later. This would suggest a practiced and physically enacted belief in a divine and astronomically structured universe which concerned itself with the salvation of human souls.

Before we can continue however it is necessary to present a brief discussion of the transmission of Platonic philosophy into the Imperial Period when Roman Mithraism began. For it would be pointless to argue a real and manifest connection between Plato and Mithraism if there is no evidence to suggest that Plato’s works were circulating in Rome prior to its foundation. There was in antiquity a tradition that Plato’s protagonist Timaeus ‘our best astronomer’ was a Greek or Greek-speaking philosopher from Locri in Southern Italy. Furthermore an astronomical work titled ‘On the Soul of the Universe’ has been attributed to him. Whether true, or not, the very tradition of an Italian-living Timaeus creates a Roman association with Platonic astrotheology, suggesting that Platonic astrotheology may well have circulated in the Latin world after the 400s BCE. However, even if we ignore this tenuous connection we do know that a Latin translation of the Timaeus was composed by Cicero in the first century BCE, and we also find Platonic resonances of spiritual incarnation in the Dream of Scipio. There is a Platonic account of the transmigration of souls at the River Lethe in the Aeneid. Furthermore, Platonic works continued to be popular, translated, and commented upon over the next centuries by writers such as Calcidius and Proclus. These translations demonstrate that Platonic cosmology, specifically the Timaeus which concerns the salvation of astral sould and the mechanisms of the universe, were circulated in the Latin-speaking world from at least the century immediately prior to the foundation of Roman Mithraism. And that its popularity remained current throughout the centuries in which Mithraism flourished.

Now the transmission of Plato from its authorship to the foundation of Mithraism and beyond has been established, we can now move on to a brief description of the Mithraic Cult and an analysis of how certain features of the cult appear to relate directly to Platonic astral theories. Mithraism was a Roman mystery cult practised in the Roman Empire from the 1st to the 4th centuries CE. The cult appears to be soteriological, involving the worship of Mithras and Sol, primarily involving a progress or ascension through seven grades. The initiates met in underground, cave or cave-like structures known as mithraea, about 420 of which have been unearthed by archaeologists. However there are few or no written texts, no theology, or doctrine pertaining to the religion to have survived. In short, while there is a wealth of archaeological evidence, there is no comprehensive account of what the Mithraists actually believed or practised. However, Platonic astral-theology, which we know to have been circulating and popular at the time of Mithraism’s foundation, can be compared to archaeological evidence in order to establish the likelihood (if any) of Platonic influence on the cult.

The physical structure of the Mithraic temples will be explored first, and secondly the ritualistic aspects of the cult, in order to establish any evidence of Platonic astronomy or transmigration theories. In order to do this it is necessary to employ the works of Porphyry, a third century Neoplatonist, as one of our few literary sources pertaining to Mithraism. In a key section of his work De antro nympharum Porphyry describes the foundation of an archetypal mithraeum:

 ‘the Persians [Mithraists] call the place a cave where they introduce an initiate to the mysteries, revealing to him the path by which souls descend and go back again…the cave is an image of the cosmos which Mithras had created, and all the things which the cave contained, by their proportionate arrangement, provided him with symbols of the elements and climates of the cosmos.’

According to this extract from Porphyry; the Mithraic temple represents the cosmos and was used as an instrument, symbolically catered to the actual practice of spiritual transmigration. Therefore we would expect to find elements of Platonic astronomy in the very structure and symbolism of the mithraea themselves. The illustrations from Roger Beck demonstrate the astronomical blueprint of an ideal mithraeum reconstructed from an amalgamation of Porphyry’s text and the most symbolically dense mithraeum known as Sette Sfere – the Seven Spheres, in Ostia.

Beck Blueprint

Mithraeum Blueprint Source: Beck p.103

Sette Sfere, Ostia Source: Beck p.104.

Sette Sfere, Ostia
Source: Beck p.104.

For the sake of space, Beck’s blueprint will suffice to represent the archaeological data which entirely, partially, or possibly matches it. According to Beck, the cave is the most suitable imitation of the universe because it ‘is an inside without an outside’. The ceilings of the temples were frequently vaulted, domed or decorated to represent the outer stellar sphere. A fine example of this is the stucco ceiling of the Ponza mithraeum which depicts the northern celestial hemisphere, centring on the constellation Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. In the Ponza ceiling there is also a celestial north pole marked by an indentation on the Ursa Major.

The northern pole in the ceiling of the mithraeum creates an imaginary axis extending from the zenith in the ceiling to the nadir below the floor. This axis is the ‘Spindle’ of the Platonic universe, around which the spheres rotate. The Seven celestial spheres are themselves symbolised by the planetary icons which either appear on the benches, or along the central aisle as per the mosaic floor of the Felicissimus Mithraeum, in Ostia. The benches, combined with the imaginary Spindle combine to create the intersecting ecliptic and equator described by Plato as the chi cross. These intersecting celestial bands are also depicted graphically in the celestial globe found at the feet of the obscure lion-headed god. This cosmos-cave Mithraic temple complete with Spindle, ‘chi’ intersection, and planetary spheres matches the Platonic description of the heavens outlined earlier.

Felicissimus Mithraeum, Ostia  Source: Clauss & Gordon p.47

Felicissimus Mithraeum, Ostia
Source: Clauss & Gordon p.47

But what can we say about the Mithraic divinities, or Platonic astral-migration? The Platonic World-Soul is indicated by the secondary sacred figure found in the Mithraic Mysteries – the lion-headed god who as we have already seen stands atop the cosmos. This divinity has been described as ‘the world-ruling power generated by the endless revolution of all the wheels of the celestial dynamo’. In the Barberini mithraeum of Rome a fresco depicts the lion-headed god extending above and beyond the zodiac into the region beyond. The region beyond the stellar sphere is the fiery realm beyond the cosmos inhabited by the World-Soul and the Demiurge. The lion-headed god in the fresco is depicted as a guardian of the celestial sphere, marking him as the Platonic ‘World-Soul, woven throughout Heaven from the centre to the extremity, and enveloping it in a circle’. Like Plato, Cicero believed the realm beyond the cosmos to be filled with ‘a fiery atmosphere which encircles and embraces the universe’. This fiery aspect is exactly what connects the lion-god to the Platonic World-Soul, his fire-kindling attribute is depicted in multiple sources including two reliefs in Roma and Vienne. The World-Soul who encircles the universe, has the role of a guardian and this is mirrored by the key which the lion-headed god holds in his statues. The Lion god is the mediator between the cosmos and what lies beyond, the realm of the Demiurge. Why though, should there need to be a boundary guardian unless this boundary could be breached? And if it could be breached – who by?

Leontocephaline on the Cosmic Sphere Source: CIMRM 543

Leontocephaline on the Cosmic Sphere
Source: CIMRM 543

This brings us to our final section – the transmigration of souls. As we have seen the mithraeum contained fundamental celestial symbols which were used to ‘reveal to the initiate the path by which souls descend and go back again’. The first of these symbols is the cosmological structure of the mithraeum which provided a physical mechanism for spiritual transmigration. The second symbol of importance is the seven gated ladder (klimax heptapylos) associated with levels of initiation. If the significance of the celestial structure is Platonic, as we have seen, then it follos that the seven gated ladder should also be Platonic.

In the Republic the route of the souls is found in the physical heavens (of which the mithraeum is a reconstruction). Both the Mithraist and the Platonist would recognise the klimax heptapylos as a spiritual pathway to salvation – the seven planetary spheres. Indeed, it is believed by most Mithraic scholars that the seven grades of initiation are associated with the planets. It therefore seems likely that in a soteriological cult members sought their salvation in a manner of spiritual ascension through the planetary spheres until they reached the World-Soul guardian who could escort them across the eighth gate into the realm of the Demiurge beyond. In other words, Mithraism was a religion based on a physical enactment of Platonic astronomy and transmigration.

Finally, it is also possible to account for another famous feature of the Mithraic Mysteries: the apparent exclusion of women from either membership, or at least exclusion from the grade system. Many explanations have been offered; that women had their own cults, or maybe it was a military institution where women were generally unwelcome. However, these conjectural theories aside, there is a much firmer explanation when we accept that the cult is fundamentally Platonic. That is, according to Plato: ‘men who proved themselves cowardly and spent their lives in wrong-doing, were transformed, at their second incarnation, into women’ Timaeus 90e. In other words only virtuous men could ascend the klimax heptapylos, while the souls of women had to incarnate into men before they could attempt their salvation. This feature of Platonic spiritual doctrine neatly explains the patriarchal nature of the cult, while also explaining the rare occurance of female presence in the mithraea – there was nothing to prevent female members, they simply could not take part in the ritual salvation.

In conclusion, that the Roman world maintained such an interest in Platonic cosmology, while also being the centre of a cult which specifically seems to contain Platonic ideals of the universe and the soul, cannot be coincidence. That is not to say that the founder or founders of Mithraism drew a specific doctrine directly from Platonic texts, but that the philosophical ideas contained within were contemporaneous and also popular amongst the literate members of society. Therefore it seems likely that Platonic cosmology greatly, if not directly, influenced the ideologies of Mithraism.



“Wherefore, as a consequence of this reasoning and design on the part of God, with a view to the generation of Time, the sun and moon and five other stars, which bear the appellation of “planets,” came into existence for the determining and preserving of the numbers of Time. And when God had made the bodies of each of them He placed them in the orbits along which the revolution of the Other was moving, seven orbits for the seven bodies…” Timaeus 38c

“The Moon He placed in the first circle around the Earth, the Sun in the second above the Earth; and the Morning Star and the Star called Sacred to Hermes He placed in those circles which move in an orbit equal to the Sun in velocity…” Timaeus 38d

“For indeed they have received titles of gods: thus, that Lucifer, or Hesperus… should almost belong to Aphrodite… and that that which follows the same course as the sun and this together should almost belong to Hermes…One must be mentioned, the eighth, which we may especially address as the world-order, and which travels in opposition to the whole company of the others,” Epinomis 987b

For Myth of Er see Republic 616b-617b.

“Then his father Anchises answered: ‘They are spirits, owed a second body by destiny, and they drink the happy waters, and a last forgetting, at Lethe’s stream.’” Aeneid VI:703-723

“And the Spindle turned on the knees of Necessity, and up above on each of the rims of the circles a Siren stood, borne around in its revolution and uttering one sound, one note, and from all the eight there was the concord of a single harmony” Republic 617b

“And the World-Soul, being woven throughout the Heaven every way from the centre to the extremity, and enveloping it in a circle from without, and revolving within itself.” Timaeus 36e

“Suppose that a man were to take his stand in that region of the Universe in which the substance of fire has its special abode” Timaeus 63b

“The most unquestionable deity is that remote all-surrounding fiery atmosphere called the aether which encircles and embraces the universe” Cicero De Natura Deorum I:37

“‘These things [i.e. the celestial ascent of souls] the mysteries of Mithras intimate.. for there is therein a certain symbolon of the two celestial revolutions, that of the fixed stars and that assigned to the planets, and of the route of the soul through and out (diexodou) of them. Such is the symbolon: a seven-gated ladder (klimax heptapylos) and an eighth on top.’” Origen Contra Celsum VI:22

“‘the Persians [Mithraists] call the place a cave where they introduce an initiate to the mysteries, revealing to him the path by which souls descend and go back again…the cave is an image of the cosmos which Mithras had created, and all the things which the cave contained, by their proportionate arrangement, provided him with symbols of the elements and climates of the cosmos.’” Porphyry De Antro Nympharum 6

“all those creatures generated as men who proved themselves cowardly and spent their lives in wrong-doing were transformed, at their second incarnation, into women” Timaeus 90e-91a



Cicero, ‘Dream of Scipio’, in, Peabody, A. P. (2008) Collected Works of Marcus Tullius Cicero, London: BiblioBazaar.

Cicero, ‘De Natura Deorum’ (accessed: 22/04/2013).

Hesiod, ‘Works and Days, Theogony’, and, Theognis, ‘Elegies’, in, Wender, D. (trans.) (1986) Hesiod and Theognis, London: Penguin.

Origen, ‘Contra Celsum’, (accessed: 20/03/2013).

Plato, ‘Epinomis’, (accessed: 19/03/2013).

Plato, ‘Phaedo’, (accessed: 20/03/2013).

Plato, ‘Republic’, in, Lee, D. (trans.) (1975) Plato: the Republic Second Edition, London: Penguin.

Plato, ‘Timaeus’, in, Lee, H. D. P. (trans.) (1965) Plato: Timaeus, London: Penguin.

Porphyry, ‘Cave of the Nymphs’, (accessed: 22/03/2013).

Timaeus of Locri, ‘On the Soul of the Universe’, in, Baltes, M. (1972) Über die Natur des Kosmos und der Seele, Leiden: Brill.

Virgil, ‘Aeneid’, in, West, D. (trans.) (2001) Virgil: the Aeneid, London: Penguin.


Beck, R. (2006) The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clauss, M. (1990) trans. Gordon, R. (2000) The Roman Cult of Mithras: The God and His Mysteries, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Cumont, F. (1896-1899) Textes et Monuments figures relatifs aux mysteries de Mithra, Brussels 2 vols. (TMMM).

Dillon, J. (1980) ‘Review: L. Tarán, Academica: Plato, Philip of Opus and the Pseudo-Platonic Epinomis (1975)’, in American Journal of Philology 101: 486-488.

Jackson, H. M. (1985) ‘The Meaning and Function of the Leontocephaline in Roman Mithraism’, in, Numen vol.32: 17-45.

Slings, S.R. (1999) Plato: Clitophon Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Somfai, A. (2002) ‘The Eleventh-Century Shift in the Reception of Plato’s “Timaeus” and Calcidius’s “Commentary”’, in, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, vol.65: 1-21.

Temporini, H., & Haas, W. (eds.). Beck, R. (1978). Aufstieg und Niedergang der Romischen Welt: Principat (Vol. 9). Walter de Gruyter.

Ulansey, D. (1989) The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries: Cosmology and Salvation in the Ancient World, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Vermaseren, M. J. (1956) Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 2 vols. (CIMRM).

Vermaseren, M. J. (1974) Mithriaca II: The Mithraeum at Ponza Leiden: Brill.

Myth-Making Paper

Myth-Making: From Medusa to Madonna
N.B. This is a transcript for a spoken paper

University of Warwick: 18th June

 Astronomical Knowledge in Homer’s Odyssey

Over the past two centuries scholastic interpretations of early archaic and classical myths have ranged from poetic descriptions of natural science (what Max Muller called the ‘mythopoeic’), to the psychological explanations presented by Carl Jung. Anthropologists such as Joseph Campbell and James Frazer similarly described ancient beliefs in myth in terms of religious or scientific evolution. Still others, from the Roman historian Strabo, to Tim Severin barely thirty years ago, maintain that the ancient myths were literal, inasmuch as they believe there to be physical, geographic counterparts to mythic characters and events. Many of these interpretations, the allegorical, the psychological, the anthropological and the literal have been dismissed or otherwise become anathema to most modern Classicists, many of which choose to interpret the earliest of Western myths – the epics of Homer – on a purely literary level.

While stories of solar heroes and cosmic journeys may no longer be considered vogue amongst academics, this does not mean that a more scientific allegorical interpretation of Homer’s Epics should not be sought. After all, one of our closest sources to Homer, the pre-Socratic philosopher Heraclitus, has left us a fragment in which he describes Homer as ‘an astronomer, and wisest among the Greeks’ (see handout). The tradition that Homer may have been an astronomer continued throughout antiquity to the Roman author Lucian, who presented Homer as a Babylonian by the name of Tigranes (see handout). For those unfamiliar with the history of astronomy, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, or Chaldea was credited in antiquity as its birthplace – in other words, calling Homer a Babylonian was akin to calling him an astronomer. Furthermore the historian Strabo believed that Homer only ‘indulged in myth’ or ‘allegory’ for the purposes of ‘instruction’ (see handout).

That this instruction may have been astronomical knowledge presented allegorically in Homer’s myths was a theory considered by one of the greatest classical scholars and a leading expert in ancient Greek Epic – Gilbert Murray. In his 1907 work ‘The Rise of the Greek Epic’ Murray mused that Homer deliberately incorporated calendrical – that is astronomical – data in the Odyssey by using references to precise numbers that are so mathematically connected to the calendar so as to have been deliberately chosen. For instance Murray wrote: ‘Can we be surprised to learn that Odysseus had just 360 boars, and that one of them died every day?’ Not enough has been made of Murray’s observations. Furthermore I propose that Homer’s mathematical details were perhaps more sophisticated than even Murray imagined. For instance, in Book 9 of the Odyssey (see handout) Homer recounts the famous story of Odysseus and his men trapped in the Cave of the Cyclops by a great round door stone which would take ‘twenty-two four-wheeled wagons’ to move. If Murray is correct – and the reference to four times twenty two is calendrical, then the likely numerical fit is the 88 lunar months of the solar eclipse cycle. In other words, if Odysseus is the sun, and the door-stone is the moon then it would take twenty-two times four lunar months for such an eclipse to occur again. This is one among many examples where Homer graphically and memorably illustrates a recognisable cosmic event, and its associated mathematical details, through the medium of myth.

Solar Eclipse in Taurus 871BCE

The Moon passing in front of the Sun in the constellation Taurus circa the composition of the Odyssey

The problem with locating, or indeed proving the significance, of such data within the text is that most, if not all, Classicists are not astronomers, and most astronomers are certainly not Classicists. So while the significance of such digits as 360, or 88 may jump out to an astronomer as calendrically significant – they are overlooked by the Classicist as mere ‘additional descriptive detail’. But I ask, as did Murray, why did Homer include numbers with such ‘a precision most unusual in epic poetry?’ Why? Because he was conveying important scientific knowledge in the guise of mythic fiction. I hasten to add, that this theory is not some Dan Brown-esque coded secret previously undiscovered within one of the greatest works of fiction ever written, nor do I propose that I have suddenly discovered the key to unlock Homer’s greatest mysteries. Far from it. As I have previously pointed out, the idea that Homer may have been an astronomer, and that he included such important information within his epics is a theory as old as the epics themselves. Furthermore, the theory becomes significantly less conjectural when we also note that in neighbouring Mesopotamia, astronomical and cosmological knowledge was being preserved in oral stories and written texts immediately preceding, and possibly during, the composition of the Odyssey.

Any brief look into Mesopotamian history from the 16th to 8th century BCE will show that by the time of the composition of the Odyssey, at least thirty-six, possibly seventy-one, constellations had been identified by the Chaldeans. They also recognised the celestial ecliptic, northern and southern tropics, the zodiacal constellations, the independent movement of the planets, and the equinoxes and solstices. In other words, their astronomical knowledge was sophisticated, recorded, and of most interest to us, this data was also included within their mythological epic – the Enuma Elis. So, the idea that a bard in neighbouring Greece could be doing the same in their literature is not beyond comprehension, indeed it even seems likely. But the next question is why, why should calendrical or astronomical information be included, symbolically or allegorically within the epic myths of these nations?

The answer to this question becomes apparent when we consider the oral nature of these cultures, especially Greece, which up to this point had only a rudimentary syllabic script – known as Linear B – which was used in the administration of the Mycenaean palaces, mostly along the south of the Peloponnese. Meanwhile, the rest of society relied on the oral transmission of their history, their culture, and most importantly the astronomical knowledge essential to the successful administration of the social, civic, and religious calendars. Like many other early cultures the Mesopotamian calendar began at the spring equinox, which still marks the ecclesiastical New Year of the Jewish faith today, as well as the fiscal year in the UK. Calendrical knowledge would have been fundamental to the successful administration of society and within such an oral culture, we would therefore expect to find it within the wisdom literature of the time. To this end the myths of Homer did not contain coded secrets hidden within wondrous tales, instead, it seems more likely that the myths were used as sophisticated memory aids, constantly repeated in fixed formulaic patterns, in order to transmit knowledge essential to the administration of civic calendars.

For example, in order to remember and predict the eclipse or occultation of one of the brightest stars in the sky, Aldebaran the ‘eye’ of the constellation Taurus, one might invent a tale of how a one-eyed demon was blinded by a solar or lunar hero – Odysseus (see handout). Baring in mind, of course, that such infrequent astral phenomena were usually considered ominous or powerful, and as such predicting them was vital tool for priests or politicians. Such information also carried medical importance (see the extract from Ptolemy on the handout). Homer even points out that this stellar eclipse is astronomically predictable by stating that the blinding of the Cyclops was prophesied. Another example might be the need to remember which star indicates the heliacal rising of the current constellation in order to establish the month of the year. The heliacal rising is marked by the star which is last visible on the eastern horizon as the sun rises. So if the last star you see is in the constellation Aries then the sun is rising in the constellation Taurus and it must be the second month of the year. The brightest star in Aries was known as Hamal, the ram, this is why Homer makes a point of stating that the ram Odysseus escapes under during the Taurus or Cyclops episode is usually ‘eager to lead the way’, because it is the star which indicates the dawn while the sun (that is Odysseus) is in Taurus (the land of the Cyclops).

The Moon about to occult the 'eye' of Taurus, the star Aldebaran

The Moon about to occult the ‘eye’ of Taurus, the star Aldebaran

Admittedly, you may say that it is easy enough to read astronomical data into the text of the Odyssey, or indeed, any text. And even if we did accept it, what does this say about Homer’s other great work the Iliad? I completely agree that with the wealth of astronomical material and the descriptive expanse of the Homeric myths, one is bound to come across some parallels. But it is not the odd star name, or numerical data, which resonates with the odd passage somewhere in the Odyssey. The entire story, from the Lotus-Eaters to Odysseus’ return and adventures in Ithaca, all of it has a sequential, recordable, astronomical counterpart from the first constellation Aries, to the last constellation Pisces. And as the sun moves from one constellation to the next, so does Odysseus wander from one land to the next, gradually losing his twelve ships (that is, the months) as he nears the end of the year. The astronomical knowledge contained in the text had been known to the Mesopotamians for over 500 years, and it would be peculiar that such knowledge should not be known in archaic Greece considering their successful civic and religious calendars. As for the Iliad, I believe it to be an impressive and comprehensive list of constellations (representing the various city-state nationalities), and individual stars (represented by the individual heroes within those regiments). So for instance, Achilles is Sirius, the brightest star in the constellation Canis Major which represents his company of Myrmidons. Indeed this is how he is so described in book 22 of the Iliad. But a further discussion is for another time. In short while the Iliad lists the constellations, the individual stars, and their relative brightness (or prowess), the Odyssey as a companion text provides the structure of the cosmos and the calendrical information which can be gathered from it.

This is not to suggest that any other reading of Homer’s myths is incorrect. Far from it. The intricate literary devices, the imagery, the epithets and the psychological rendering of character are all part of what makes the Odyssey and the Iliad so remarkable. But that is not to say that alongside the cultural, religious, and historical information contained therein, that there is no room for some more scientific knowledge.

While there is not time to go into details, I would like to quickly present some of the other features that I have come across which seem to be suggested by the broader theory. Earlier I described Odysseus as the sun, I base this on a purely literal translation of his epithet polutropon as ‘much-turning sun’, as well as the only celestial description of him provided in the text (see handout). I also propose that the Olympian gods represent the planets, which after all are the only beings able to move independently to the fixed (that is pre-determined or fated) celestial sphere. So while Achilles (Canis Major) for instance may be fated to pursue Hector (or Orion) across the sky, as they are fixed stars, the gods may still appear or influence the characters as the planets move near or in front of these stars. For example, in the Odyssey Athena (as the Moon) appears in a dream to Nausicaa in Book VI (see handout). In short, the Moon has passed near the star in the constellation Aquarius which represents the character of Nausicaa, so that Athena may appear to her. On the handout I have included the additional information of the two hand-maids who sleep nearby and on either side of Nausicaa, a peculiar detail until one looks at the constellation Aquarius, represented by Nausicaa’s family.  It is also interesting to note that epsilon Aquarii, the character of the virginal maiden Nausicaa, was known in the East as NU SU, the young girl.

Nausicaa and her handmaidens -in  the constellation Aquarius

Nausicaa and her handmaidens -in the constellation Aquarius

So in summary the theory that astronomical data is contained in the Odyssey is supported by a) the fact that astronomical data was being recorded at the time of its composition, and b) that in an oral society such important data needed a means of transmission. While evidence of the astronomical data within the Odyssey itself is manifested in:

1)  a sequential chronological account of the suns passage through the twelve ecliptic constellations contained in the narrative

2)  specific details concerning eclipses and occultations explained in memorable mythic adventures

3)  precise mathematical details given to calculate calendars or other celestial phenomena

4)  the movements of the planets and the stars they may come into contact with

5)  possible knowledge of star names from the Orient

It is of course impossible to explain the fullest extent of this radical theory, complete with the comprehensive list of examples, in such a short paper. But if it is accepted, then the implications are vast. They would suggest that early Greek astronomy was quite sophisticated, which is a conclusion some contemporary scholarship is currently reaching. It would also suggest greater links between the West and the East, another theory currently explored by classical scholars. And finally, it even suggests that there may be another, more practical aspect to other early Greek literature which has yet to be appreciated, and this alone is an exciting prospect.

I would like to leave the more sceptical of you with a passage from the great Neoplatonist and Homeric scholar Porphyry, who said in regards to the Homeric myths that:

‘It must not be thought that interpretations of this kind are forced, and nothing more than the conjectures of ingenious men [or women], but when we consider the great wisdom of antiquity and how much Homer excelled in intellectual prudence, and in an accurate knowledge of every virtue, it must not be denied that he has obscurely indicated the images of things of a more divine [that is celestial] nature in the fiction of a fable. For it would not have been possible to devise the whole of this hypothesis unless the figment had been transferred from certain established truths.’


‘Then I felt as some watcher of the skies’

‘Then I felt as some watcher of the skies’ was Keats’ reaction when he first heard the works of Homer in 1816, and this is precisely where my research is taking me this June. It is fast becoming apparent that in all aspects of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern worlds there is an underlining realm of astral imagery, metaphor and allegory. It can be found in the art, architecture, literature, science, philosophy and coins (numismatics) of the ancients and is so blindingly obvious that we have forgotten to notice it. This blog does not intend to argue that there is some ‘great secret’ hidden in ancient culture that can be ‘revealed’ by dedicated and informed study, but the complete opposite. The astral imagery and science of the ancients has only become ‘hidden wisdom’ because the ability to read the obvious has been lost through the imposition of centralised orthodox religion and the subsequent rewriting of history. Book burning is a practice as old as the production of books themselves, even the first Roman Emperor Augustus partook (Seneca De Ira III.xxiii.5) and it should come as no surprise that between this practice and the natural ravages of time that few references to the stellar practices of the pagans survive. However, plenty of evidence remains to account for the stellar and solar preoccupations of the ancients, and a thorough and complete examination of this evidence is the purpose of my research. All humans across geographical and temporal space have in common this one thing – the beautiful night skies, and I believe that the stars pervade far more of ancient culture than we generally think. From pre-historic man and the first ever metaphors for the skies, through planetary divination for political control in Mesopotamia, the great monuments of Egypt, Nemrut Dag (Turkey), Stonehenge, Greece and Rome, the epics of Homer, the Tanakh, New Testament, Gnostics, Qumran Scrolls and beyond – this is my journey through the ancient views of the ancient skies and I welcome you to follow me in my discoveries.

On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer

Much have I travell’d in the realms of gold,

And many goodly states and kingdoms seen;

Round many western islands have I been

Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold.

Oft of one wide expanse had I been told

That deep-browed Homer ruled as his demesne;

 Yet did I never breathe its pure serene

Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold:

 Then felt I like some watcher of the skies

When a new planet swims into his ken;

Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes

He star’d at the Pacific — and all his men

Look’d at each other with a wild surmise —

Silent, upon a peak in Darien.

                                                              ~ John Keats October 1816